Author: Elizabeth Caldwell Hirschman and Donald N. Yates
Size: 7 x 10 inches
Publication date: February 2013
Copyright date: 2007
When Scotland Was Jewish
DNA Evidence, Archeology,Analysis of Migrations, and Public and Family Records Show Twelfth Century Semitic Roots
The popular image of Scotland is dominated by widely recognized elements of Celtic culture. But could it be that a significant non-Celtic influence on Scotland’s history has been largely ignored or unknown for centuries? This book argues just such a case, maintaining that much of Scotland’s history and culture from 1100 forward is Jewish. The authors provide evidence that much of the population, including several national heroes, villains, rulers, nobles, traders, merchants, bishops, guild members, burgesses, and ministers, were of Jewish descent. They describe how the ancestors of these persons originated in France and Spain and then made their way to Scotland’s shores, moors, burgs and castles from the reign of Malcolm Canmore to the aftermath of the Spanish Inquisition.
It is proposed here that much of the traditional historical account of Scotland rests on fundamental interpretive errors, and that these errors have been perpetuated in order to manufacture and maintain an origin for Scotland that affirms its identity as a Celtic, Christian society. This equation of Scotland with Celtic culture in the popular (and academic) imagination has buried a more accurate and profound understanding of its history.
The authors’ wide-ranging research includes examination of census records, archaeological artifacts, castle carvings, cemetery inscriptions, religious seals, coinage, burgess and guild member rolls, noble genealogies, family crests, portraiture, and geographic place names.
Table of Contents
1. The Origins of Scotland 3
2. DNA and Population Studies: “But Why Do You Think They Were Jewish?” 24
3. Genealogies of the First Wave of Jewish Families, 1100–1350 C.E. 44
4. Genealogies of the Second Wave of Jewish Families, 1350–1700 C.E. 71
5. The Early Jews of France, 700–1200 C.E. 79
6. When Did Jews Arrive in Scotland? 88
7. To Scotland’s Stirling, Ayr, and Glasgow 97
8. The Knights Templar, Freemasons and Cabala in Scotland 131
9. The Judaic Colony at Aberdeen 152
10. The Religions of Scotland: Did Presbyterianism Have Crypto-Jewish Origins? 192
11. Jews in the National Consciousness of Scotland: Scott’s Ivanhoe 205
Appendix A: Raw Scores for Participants in Melungeon DNA Surname Project 215
Appendix B: Naming and Jewish Priest-Kings 218
Appendix C: Early Jewish Names in France and England 220
Appendix D: Davidic Jewish Genealogies 229
Appendix E: Border Reiver DNA 232
Chapter Notes 233
Elizabeth Caldwell Hirschman is a professor of marketing at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey and a professor at the University of Virginia‑Wise. She has written widely on genealogy and ethnic identity.
Donald N. Yates is an American genealogist, cultural historian and DNA investigator. He lives in Phoenix.